SPAR Ontologies to enhance the scholarly articles with annotations about its structural and semantic characterisations

The Semantic Publishing and Referencing Ontologies : SPAR Ontologies, form a suite of orthogonal and complementary OWL 2 DL ontology modules for the creation of comprehensive machine-readable RDF metadata for every aspect of semantic publishing and referencing:

  • document description,
  • bibliographic resource identifiers,
  • types of citations and related contexts,
  • bibliographic references,
  • document parts and status,
  • agents' roles and contributions,
  • bibliometric data and workflow processes.

SPAR Ontologies have been already adopted by different communities and in several projects for describing data related with the publishing domain. Please take a look at the communities uptake page for a complete list of scholarly and industrial works and projects/initiatives citing or using SPAR Ontologies.

See, for example :
The United Nations System Document Ontology: A framework for the description of United Nations system documents’ entities and their relationships

The migration of all the SPAR Ontologies from Sourceforge to GitHub has been completed. The new SPAR Ontologies GitHub Organisation includes several repositories, one for each ontology included in SPAR (e.g. This makes easier to post and handle issues and to gather new feedback from the community by using the GitHub issue tracker available in each repository. The old Sourceforge repository will be still available to get the old versions of the various ontologies.

While all the current (and future) ontologies will be available via the and pURL domains (e.g., a new domain as an alternative route for getting to all them (e.g. has also been activated. However, even if they are also accessible via the service, the IRIs of all the SPAR Ontologies and of all their entities keep the base for backward compatibility reasons (the pURL service is currently maintained by the Internet Archive).

In addition, the content negotiation mechanism of all the SPAR ontologies is now handled outside the SPAR Ontologies website, by means of the service ( Thus, in case of some issues in the website (e.g. server crashes), the ontologies will be reachable anyway.

Finally, the new contribution guidelines ( allows the community to propose new ontologies to be added within the SPAR suite. Thanks to the new GitHub repository, a clear workflow has been defined for accepting external contribution in a more structured way, compared to what happened in the past.

The FAIR* Reviews ontology (currently at is in the process to be included within the SPAR Ontologies, a very first early adopter of the aforementioned contribution guidelines.

Please follow SPAR Ontologies on Twitter to get additional updates.


SPAR Ontologies website - -> SPAR Ontology news


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