The talk retraced the current developments in Open Access by focusing on the two complimentary approaches - self archiving and Open Access publishing. Regarding the self archiving route, the need to engage the researchers to increase repository deposits, was emphasized. Two use cases of repository deposit strategies were mentioned, these are i) the Harvard University experience , and ii) the Université de Liège experience ( commonly referred to as the Liege model). Thereafter, recent developments regarding central and thematic repositories were extensively reviewed. Similarly, with regards to Open Publishing, after discussing various models available and developments, two examples from South America were mentioned as models for the 'Gold route' , these are SciELO and Redalyc.