LODE-BD Recommendations 2.0


How to select appropriate encoding strategies for producing Linked Open Data (LOD)-enabled bibliographic data


(PDF 8 MB)

(Revised 2015-08-03 with updated links in the document and mapping changes in Appendix 4.)

LODE-BD aims to support the selection of appropriate encoding strategies for producing meaningful Linked Open Data (LOD)-enabled bibliographical data (directly or indirectly). The LODE-BD recommendations are applicable for structured data describing bibliographic resources such as articles, monographs, theses, conference papers, presentation materials, research reports, learning objects, etc. – in print or electronic format.

The core component of LODE-BD contains a set of recommended decision trees for common properties used in describing a bibliographic resource instance. Each decision tree is delivered with various acting points and the matching encoding suggestions. The full range of options presented by LODE-BD will enable data providers to make their choices according to their development stages, internal data structures, and the reality of their practices.

What's new in LODE-BD 2.0

  • Background information and references are moved into appendixes.
  • Metadata terms recommended by LODE-BD 2.0 are not limited to subject-specific domains. Agricultural-related namespaces and vocabularies are removed from the 2.0 version. LODE-BD now are appropriate for use by any data providers and repositories.
  • A road-map is added to guide the navigation of LODE-BD sections.
  • A crosswalk is added which maps the metadata terms used in the LODE-BD 2.0 with schema.org properties.  It is attached as Appendix 4.


1. The LODE-BD Recommendations

     1.1. Purpose of the LODE-BD Recommendations

     1.2. The LODE-BD Report Roadmap

2. General Recommendations

     2.1. Questions Addressed

     2.2. Metadata Terms Overview

3. The Decision Trees: Recommendations for Individual Properties

     3.1. Title Information

          3.1.1. Title/Alternative title

     3.2. Responsible Body

          3.2.1. Creator

          3.2.2. Contributor

          3.2.3. Publisher

     3.3. Physical Characteristics

          3.3.1. Date

          3.3.2. Identifier

          3.3.3. Language

          3.3.4. Format/Medium

          3.3.5. Edition/Version

          3.3.6. Source

     3.4. Holding/Location Information

          3.4.1. Location/Availability

     3.5. Subject Information

          3.5.1. Subject

     3.6. Description of Content

          3.6.1. Description/Abstract/Table of Contents

          3.6.2. Type/Form/Genre

     3.7. Intellectual property rights

          3.7.1. Right Statements

     3.8. Usage

          3.8.1. Audience/literary indication/education Level

     3.9. Relation

          3.9.1. Relation between resources

          3.9.2. Relation between agents

     4. The step forward (With Further Readings)

          4.1. Implementation Options

          4.2. How to publish and consume Linked Data

          4.3. Where to find Linked Data sets and Vocabularies

          4.4. How to express metadata with different syntaxes: text, html. xml, rdf, and rdfa

          4.5. Why publish bibliographic data as Linked Data?


Appendix 1. Background of the original report, LODE-BD 1.1

Appendix 2. Explanation of terminology

Appendix 3. Metadata standards used in LODE-BD

Appendix 4. Crosswalk of metadata terms used in LODE-BD and schema.org terms


Contact us


If you are interested to know more about LODE-BD, do not hesitate to contact us at [email protected].

How to cite

Subirats, Imma; Zeng, Marcia L. (2012). LODE-BD Recommendations 2.0 : How to select appropriate encoding strategies for producing Linked Open Data (LOD)-enabled bibliographic data. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations.